1 free week for every 4 weeks purchased for some courses from 1-3 weeks until 29 Nov 2019
ACCORD, opgericht in 1988, is gevestigd in het centrum van Parijs, aan de beroemde Grands Boulevards, op een paar minuten afstand van het Louvre, de Opéra Garnier en Beaubourg.
ACCORD is een privé-instituut voor hoger onderwijs geregistreerd bij de Rectorat de Paris en onder conventie met Parijse universiteiten.
ACCORD is lid van de professionele organisaties Campus France en SOUFFLE, het wordt Bildungsurlaub in een paar Duitse Länder erkend en door CSN in Zweden goedgekeurd.
De hoofdschool op de Grands Boulevards, die het hele jaar door geopend is, biedt 20 klaslokalen, een VIP-ruimte met een-op-een klaslokalen en een comfortabele cafetaria met computers en gratis toegang tot internet. Gratis en onbeperkte draadloze verbinding ook in de hele school.
In juli en augustus zijn er ook cursussen beschikbaar op de Sinterklaasschool Saint-Nicolas in het zuiden van Parijs.
Cursussen voor volwassenen (voor +16 jaar) zijn het hele jaar door open voor alle niveaus, van beginners tot gevorderden, en taaltrainingen in Business French zijn in kleine groepen gegarandeerd voor alle niveaus, zelfs als er maar één student is op één niveau van het Frans.
Elke vrijdagochtend worden onze studenten tijdens het eerste uur van hun les getest, zodat we ze kunnen vertellen over de voortgang die ze gedurende de week hebben geboekt.
We hebben ook een nieuw Frans examen opgezet dat we aanbieden om de cursus aan te vullen. Aan het einde van de cursus krijgt de student die aan dit examen deelneemt het juiste niveau Frans dat hij of zij bereikt heeft na zijn studie aan ACCORD Parijs. De student die aan dit examen deelneemt, krijgt een officieel diploma "Diplôme de Langue et Culture Françaises". Dit diploma wordt erkend door de Rectorat de Paris (Raad van Onderwijs van Parijs).
ACCORD Paris has partnerships with the following universities and colleges in Frankrijk. You can gain full or conditional acceptance into one of these institutions.
De nationaliteiten- en leeftijden mix in ACCORD Paris varieert over verschillende tijd periodes, taalcursussen en niveau's. Gedurende het jaar is de gemiddelde leeftijd 26. Tijdens de zomer is de gemiddelde leeftijd 20.
De school heeft studenten vanuit de hele wereld, inclusief:
ACCORD Paris heeft geen lessen tijdens de onderstaande vakantie-data. De school geeft geen vergoeding voor deze vakantiedagen dus verzeker u ervan dat u de correcte startdatum kiest.
very nice teachers, well organized, good location, international students - i had a very good time thereToon details » lees meer...
I have chosen the afternoon course and each lesson had a different teacher and different topic, it was "French Culture and Civilisation" lessons. It was interesting as one day we did grammar, one day conversation, one day listening etc.
I was really happy with the teachers Amanda, Emilie, Christine and Nicola.
I was given material and photocopies through the course.
I would recommend the course to everyone who has a basic knowledge of French.
It was a shame that no social activities were available for the students after class, in the school I teach in the UK, we offer once a week to go to the pub, cinema, for a walk or something all together to practise the language outside the school, I think it would have been good to be able to take advantage of it, if there was the possibility.
I took night classes at ACCORD 3h per week for 5 weeks. Even though it was a short stay, I can say that my French level improved a bit. The methodology is good and the exercises/ topics are related with real-life situations, which is useful. However, I had already seen most of the content in another course that I took. So, I would highly recommend making sure that you are placed at the right level. On the other hand, the School is located really near to bars and restaurants and a cinema which is ideal for you to integrate with your classmates after classes.Toon details » lees meer...
The teachers at accord were very friendly.
In terms of the teaching - it would have been great to have an overview of the syllabus, to begin with. I found too that despite being in the very bottom set everyone around myself had a better comprehension of the French language than myself so it would have been nice to have been paired with absolute beginners.
I really enjoyed taking the ACCORD language lessons and I feel like that I am less shy to practise to speak now. I really liked the chnging of teachers, so every teacher brings her/his own style within the lessons.Toon details » lees meer...
Teacher great place also no complaints, like said above I want god again
Do you have any kind of program we can do by internet ?
I enjoyed the professors style of teaching. I really like the casual atmosphere and the central location. Thank you very much.Toon details » lees meer...
Positive: I liked the little group size, enthousiastic students and profs, nice area for students, focus on speaking french
Negative: no test at the end of my week to see if improvement was made
The classes were very professional with an enthusiastic teacher. They divided the students in small groups so you learn so much more than you would in bigger groups. The school could not be better located!Toon details » lees meer...
The class program is excellent
Most professors (especially Thierry) are good professors .Agnes with very little psychology as a teacher
No reception of staff neither when it arrives nor when it goes
Very clean. Excellent grooming staff
Air conditioning is missing
The teachers in general are totally impersonal student / teacher relationship
Very good teachers and pleasant administrative staff, but the ACCORD company has badly organized some aspects (the wifi did not work, the offices closed before the scheduled hours and it was difficult to use common computers when there was had no lesson ...).Toon details » lees meer...
We were 2 students only in the class the first 6 weeks which was great. I got moved up to another much more difficult class and then back again the last two weeks.
The school is good, so are the teachers. Great, accessible location.
Classes AM were very nice, multinational group of people. Lots of different nationalities. We had the chance to talk about different topics, multinational, but of course in French Language.
In the afternoon I had the chance to take business French. This course was one-on-one. This gave me a lot of opportunities to talk about my personal interests. Human Resources. By studying one-on-one I could increase my knowledge about the domain Human Resources in French.
Teachers and the other personel of Accord are very helpfull! You can ask any question, they will help you.
The school facilities are good, with a touch of historical elements. Nice!
I didn't do any social activities.
I took housing in private.
I had booked the intensive morning classes for two weeks in order to advance my French level in the short time. It was a great experience but everything depends on you and your motivation. School provides all the opportunity for learning: workshops, private lessons in addition to your lessons and they are really worth to take. However, a lot depends on the teacher you have and group members as well. I was lucky enough to have a nice group and one of the best teacher I have ever had, Nicolas. I was able to compare with other teachers and believe me he is so good. The stuff is very helpful as well. They always open to any questions and try to sort out all the problems. Location is great, it is in the city center and right next to a metro station.
Lack of social activities and housing are drawbacks.
All in all, it was possible to reach all my goals but I really worked hard and invested some extra money for additional workshops and private classes.
I stayed the whole week in Isabelle's class. She is a very good French teacher and motivated us a lot. I really liked that the sizes of the classes at the language school were very small and I also liked that we did not only have grammar exercises but also exercises to improve our speaking and our vocabulary. Furthermore the language school is located in the middle of Paris and very close to the metro station Grands Boulevards.Toon details » lees meer...
I had a really good time there.
The School is good located. The stuff is very nice.
My teacher in the first two weeks was Amina, she is an awesome teacher.
I really learned a lot.
It was a pleasant experience to study there. The teachers were motivated. They used worksheets instead of traditional textbooks. There were no homework/ CD/ grammar books etc. Although the course fee is not cheap. If you want to have a grammar course or oral course, you need to pay extra money and even if you paid, sometimes they put you in an advanced class which gives me a feeling that they don't put their student's interest as their priority. Besides, I don't like them keep rotating students to different classes (some students have their teacher changed every week!)
However, if you are an advance student and you want to strengthen your oral aspect, it may be a good choice.
The class was well structured and effective, the teacher was friendly and fun and at the same time she was kind of hard, letting us know if we would have to study harder. That's something missing in a lot of language courses, the teachers "telling their students off" if they don't do their job. There was a very good mix of oral exercises / practice and of grammar explaining what we learned. Loved it!
The location was fine. I didn't join in any activity and had private housing.
I got exactly what I wanted from my week stay in Paris: From not knowing the French language at all, to having learned how it works and being able to express myself in basic conversations. I learned A LOT during the week I spent in Paris and now have the basic knowledge to be able to continue on my own. Great!
I would highly recommend Accord language course. I participated in the C + 50.
The course was grand educational and cultural offerings with a guided tour in French in Paris was something utterly competent and highly informative.
The language school is located at the center of Paris, in comfortable rooms.
I signed up for the ten week beginner/evening course and I was very satisfied during the first four weeks but then I was assigned to another class which is one level higher and this level was way too difficult for me compared to the other first course I attended. If I understood it correctly there was no class in between these. I ended up not going during the last three weeks because I didn't feel like I was getting anything out of it because I didn't understand anything, the course was way too hard and the other people in the group had a much higher level of French than I did. I had already paid for ten weeks and only attended seven so I am a little disappointed.Toon details » lees meer...
Everything was exceptional. The school were very well organized and the teachers were very well prepared and ready to help.Toon details » lees meer...
The morning classes were very good, and I really improved my language skills in my short period of time in Paris. Our teacher was very professional and did a super job.
I didn't like the afternoon classes much because they were either too easy or way too difficult. If I were to come back again, I would prefer the same class twice a day, so both morning and afternoon were beginner’s classes, plus French focusing on oral / speaking the language.
I am sorry to tell that my stay at Accord was a disappointment. I don't think the teacher I had loved her job very much, and I think she was rather unkind. There was one real good day with another teacher, with whom we talked, played and laughed a great deal.
I had only one week at Accord. and I think it was too much to use one day on a not very interesting trip to find signs in Paris from the book and film The Davinci Code which many of the students had not read, seen or even heard about.
One of the ladies rooms was stopped the whole week, and one toilet was not enough. I told the reception about it but nothing was done.
On Friday we wrote an exercise, but having read three of them, the teacher did not want to correct the rest of them. Too many
errors, she said..
Afterwards I met one of the students from the group. He told me that he had tried to get another teacher, because he found her too negative, but it was impossible.
Well anyway I enjoyed Paris - so I will always have Paris! - as they say in Casa Blanca.
I really liked Accord, though the morning classes weren't really for me. I guess I just didn't like my teacher. The afternoon workshops were amazing!Toon details » lees meer...
The Accord French language school in Paris was the best school and the best facility. I will never regret this experience. They were really kind and fun. They tried to do their best to make the language easy to learn. I benefited a lot and learned a lot in just four weeks, which is not a long period! I would love to do more French courses soon at the same school.
The location of the school is really nice and safe. There are a lot of restaurants and shops nearby. The cost is reasonable; I also took private lessons. This was really great and it improved my language faster. The courses focus on all the aspects of French (i.e. grammar, reading, and speaking). The professors are qualified. The best professor for me was Valery; she's so friendly and patient. Thank you.
Teachers are great and my oral skills improved a lot. You have to study grammar mostly on your own because classes usually concentrate on oral skills and listening exercises.Toon details » lees meer...
I really enjoyed the school and how the teachers were with the students, how they used to teach me also how they try to help anyone for anything. The location was really good, in the center and easy to get there, about the housing I'm not satisfied at all, I think that that family and also the house aren't appropriate at all.Toon details » lees meer...
I liked the small groups -- in the morning, we were 5 pupils and in the afternoon (French business), we were 2 pupils.
The teacher in business French had an excellent mixture of communication, grammar and business needs.
The place was easy to find and to reach by metro. The surroundings (sightseeing, restaurants) were nice.
We talked a lot and even had a choral.
In the morning, the grammar was too easy, but the conversation was okay.
My teacher for the morning class was Bruno. He was really motivated and a good teacher.
I was starting from level 0 and I can understand some French. But talking and making good sentences is still not possible for me.
The afternoon classes were nice. The level was a lot higher, but still possible to keep up with the rest of the class.
My stay in Paris was great. I met a lot of amazing people and had the best time.
I have had a good impression of the school and the teachers. The lodging near the apartments Saint Martin is also good.Toon details » lees meer...
I found it well-organized, structured, and intensive!
All is in French, which mostly is good, but at times it can be a bit frustrating when I was unable to understand something in French. Therefore I looked for some hints in English at times.
A negative side however is that some of it is a bit repetitive. We have many presentations, which is great to learn, but maybe 1 each day is too many.
I wished there could be more focus on counting and the alphabet from day one.
One last thing, I think it would be great to have some more obligatory
e-learning programs for all students, so that all were closer to being on the same level.
But overall a good school, the teachers are nice and willing to teach French, and also have time if an individual doesn't understand.
It was really fun and I learnt a lot in 3 weeks. Teachers were really helpful and nice all the time. I believe that 3 weeks at this school can really make a big difference in French. When I started at the school I knew nothing but now I am able to talk about some stuff and understand most of the conversations. They really push students to do well. I recommend this school to everyone and it's also in a very central location but not the Intensive D course cause you don't really have time to do anything else.Toon details » lees meer...
Valerie Bouland is very professional. Try to get in her class. Mornings were big group classes - too big a group. Business French in small groups was very effective.Toon details » lees meer...
It was a nice experience overall, however not all the teachers are good. You should be lucky to have a chance at the one that is really contributing.Toon details » lees meer...
I liked the school. The teachers were nice, the classes were lovely, and the location was okay.Toon details » lees meer...
I spent a month in Paris taking classes at l'Accord Language School. The location of the school was perfect. All of the teachers were friendly, approachable, and perform their jobs well. The school accommodates students from a wide range of different languages and backgrounds which was great and I made a lot of new friends. The school conducts morning classes from 9-1 which focus on general skills in the French language. Students have the option to add afternoon classes on a more specific topic. I took two afternoon classes and felt like they were a waste of time. The school clumped way too many different levels of students into one class. This made it difficult for the teacher, but also for the students as the class was either too easy or too hard. I did not learn a lot of French during my time in Paris but that is by no means a reflection on the school or the family that I stayed with. I loved the time I spent in Paris.Toon details » lees meer...
L'école est très bien situé et avec un accès facile. Les enseignants sont compétents, intelligents, agréables et parfois amusantes. Les collègues étaient de différents âges et de différents pays. Seule ce que je n'ai pas aimait: tomber malade le dernier jour. J'espère pouvoir y retourner.Toon details » lees meer...
I stayed with the school Accord for 4 week doing 52 classes (40 hours) a week. Within this time I managed to improve my French from A. 2. 1 to B. 1, ie. in the beginning I was translating almost every word in a book, by the end I could watch movies with subtitles. Helpful and reachable teachers, quality depends on the specific teacher. Some were outstanding, some too fast to follow. I was though lucky enough to get great ones. Morning classes absolutely much more useful the afternoon ateliers. Afternoon classes not properly differentiated between levels. Last tutorial class (you get it if you take 52 lessons/40 hours per week) becomes not useful after the first week because you are overloaded with home tasks for the morning classes and cannot take more tasks. Overall, you will see no Paris if you take that much classes. You will not be able to spend much time with the locals practicing your French skills out of school. So my advice: all mornings + 2 ateliers in the afternoon per week. The housing can get really bad (like my first host family was), economizing on the electricity and being strict with the timing of dinners. After two weeks of being constantly ill (this was in December) I asked for a transfer which was initiated the very next day. Second family was great. So you should really forget your shyness if you want good conditions. Bear in mind that if you want to stay for extra days with the family the school will charge you double price a day ( which is more than the price of a decent hotel) and if you refuse to accept it they may get really rude saying that in this case you will need to leave the family on Saturday MORNING!!! Anyway, I would still recommend that this school, as the style of teaching is highly oriented on oral practice unlike Aliance Francais. People come from all parts of the world and it becomes a really cool experience.Toon details » lees meer...
I liked just about everything pertaining to the school. I was very satisfied with the teachers and the quality of education. I loved the housing arranged by the school. At first I was a little concerned and sort of afraid of the commute. I had to take three (3) different trains to get to to the school. However, after a few days I enjoyed the daily commute. The family I lived with was so wonderful to me. Great food and family gatherings. I still communicate with friends I made during my stay in Paris.Toon details » lees meer...
The school is nice, the classes too, but I thinke at school are a lot of teachers they can't imagen how difficult lerning french is. The school location is great. My housing too, but I think is't better to ask the people whether they agree with a smoking budget.Toon details » lees meer...
The location was pretty good, very close to 2 metro stops and in an area with a lot of activity. The facilities were perfectly adequate for teaching. Nearly all teachers were great - I only had one (Vincent) that I did not enjoy. He was not good at seeking input from all students and at times lost a bit of control of the class. Also his teaching style was not easy to understand difficult topics. I found there to be a great lack of social activities sponsored by the school but in the end that was okay because I met up with other students. And lastly, I felt the flexibility during the week to move among levels was not good. I tried both the first and second week to express my discontent but no one seemed to listen. The first week I was not happy, the second week I just ended up switching on my own because it was easy for me to find the right level.Toon details » lees meer...
Lot's of talk, nearly no writing. If you're wishing to improve you're oral French, don't look any further, if you wish to improve you're written French, look further...Toon details » lees meer...
basically the course was good and the teacher too even if we have changed teachers several times, but what i didn't like was the fact that nothing has been oranised outside the courseToon details » lees meer...
Location: the school is very comfortably located next to a metro stop, in the center of Paris, which is indispensable because otherwise I wouldn't have chosen it.
I appreciated in particular the rule that you can't attend with students from your own country, because I found it extremely interesting meeting so many different people.
I also appreciated the massive use of oral lessons: you can always study grammar by yourself, but speaking and listening to a foreign language are more important and often underrated.
The activities were quite varied and all the teachers were friendly and helpful.
The classes and the building in general were tidy and clean.
I am Daniel's father and he is too busy to reply. He enjoyed his experience at the school.Toon details » lees meer...
The classes I took (morning classes from 09:00 to 13:00) consisted mostly of oral and written activities, with occasional outings and other types of classes. The course was not academic (i.e. not formal, requiring textbooks etc.) but practical, with the required language (French) being the only one spoken in class. The level of my class (A2) would be most appropriate for people who have studied some French already (even if never practiced). The teachers were very patient and helpful when a student expressed difficulty. The school is very conveniently located in the center of Paris. There were a few computers, wireless internet and vending machines available to students. It should be noted though, that there was no air-conditioning and opening windows usually brought a lot of noise from traffic. This was often problematic having taken the course in the summer.Toon details » lees meer...
Lokale accomodaties worden zorgvuldig uitgekozen en bieden studenten de mogelijkheid aan om meer te weten te komen van de lokale cultuur in een comfotabele omgeving terwijl ze Frans in Parijs studeren. Deze huizen liggen vaak tussen 5 - 40 minuten af van de school met openbaar vervoer. Families bieden normaliter betaalbare maaltijdplannen aan die u in staat stellen om de lokale keuken uit te proberen. Indien u speciale verzoeken heeft of dieet restricties (ivm religie of medische redenen), laat ons aub van te voren weten. Uw huisvesting begint op de Zondag voor uw eerste lesdag en eindigt op de Zaterdag na de laatste lesdag. Huisvestingopties worden aangeboden met toename van telkens één-week, te zijn tenzij anders vermeld. Lees meer over lokale accomodaties
Homestay - Single Room - room only (no breakfast and no access to the kitchen)
Homestay - Single Room with Breakfast
Homestay - Single Room - Breakfast and access to the Kitchen
Homestay - Single Room - Breakfast and 2 dinners
Homestay - Single Room - Half Board
Studenten huisvestingen zijn geschikter voor een onafhankelijke student, die op zoek is naar schone, basis accomodaties tegen een lage prijs. Alle studenten dienen 18+ te zijn tenzij anders vermeld. Uw huisvesting begint op de Zondag voor uw eerste lesdag en eindigt op de Zaterdag na de laatste lesdag. Huisvestingopties worden aangeboden met toename van telkens één-week, te zijn tenzij anders vermeld. Learn more about apartment housing
Summer Student Residence "Maison des Mines" - room only
CISP Student Residence - Single Room
Summer Student Residence "Maison des Mines" - room with en-suite shower (no toilets)
FIAP Jean Monet - Twin Room with half board
Summer Student Residence "Maison des Mines" - room with en-suite shower and toilets
FIAP Jean Monet - Single Room with half board
Summer Student Residence "Lejeune" - Single room
Het is mogelijk om in een huurappartement te verblijven gedurende uw studie in Parijs, maar dit kan duurder te zijn. ACCORD Paris levert enige hulp met appartementen huur of u kunt zelf een appartement huren. Lees meer over appartmentverblijf
StayCity Saint-Martin Apartment - Self Catering
*** Reuilly Adagio residence - Self Catering
** Le 300 Adagio residence - Self Catering
**** Porte de Versailles Residence Apartments - Self Catering
**** Opera Adagio residence - Self Catering
We kunnen geen visas voor studenten aanvragen. De school kan u echter wel met alle benodigde documentatie voorzien die u nodig heeft voor uw visa aanvraag.
Uw acceptatiebrief zal gratis naar uw huisadres per normale post worden gestuurd. Indien u uw documentatie per express post wilt ontvangen zal 120 € in rekening gebracht worden bij uw registratie.
U kan van het vliegveld worden opgehaald. Indien u opgehaald wilt worden, geef ons uw vlucht informatie en aankomst datum. De prijs van een enkele reis ophaal vliegveld transpoirt is 190 €. U moet uw vliegveld transport van te voren reserveren.
Let aub op dat we geen vluchten voor onze studenten reserveren. Indien u vlucht kosten aan het onderzoeken bent, raden we u aan om Kayak.com te gebruiken: een zoek machine die u vlucht opties laat vergelijken vanuit uw land naar Parijs gebaseerd op budget, schema en voorkeuren.
Studeer in het buitenland zonder zorgen met Language International's medische en persoonlijke effecten verzekeringsdekking. Wanneer u een cursus met ons reserveert, kunt u kiezen om een internationaal plan te kopen die niet alleen uw medische kosten dekt maar ook het verlies van persoonlijke spullen. U moet uw verzekering van te voren reserveren wanneer u registreert.
De Franse taalschool Accord, opgericht in 1988, biedt cursussen van hoge kwaliteit in het Frans en werd bekroond met het officiële Franse kwaliteitslabel.
De ACCORD-school is het hele jaar geopend en ligt in het hart van Parijs, aan de beroemde Grands Boulevards, in een prachtig, typisch Parijs gebouw. Faciliteiten zijn ongeëvenaard en GRATIS internet ADSL draadloze verbinding is ook beschikbaar.
ACCORD biedt semi-intensieve cursussen, 6 intensieve cursussen die het hele jaar door open zijn op alle niveaus (8 niveaus van het Franse minimum zijn open), Business French-cursussen in minigroepen van max 3 personen, een Frans en juridisch programma, het Paris-Club-programma voor + 50, ...
ACCORD is het examencentrum voor de TEF, TCF, TCF ANF, TCF Québec, TEF Canada.
ACCORD is ook het examencentrum voor het "Diplôme de Langue et Culture Françaises".
Door ACCORD te kiezen, krijgt u gegarandeerd de beste taalleerervaring en het hoogste serviceniveau.
ACCORD is geregistreerd als een privé-instituut voor hoger onderwijs (nr. 588 aan de Academie van Parijs)
ACCORD is ook gelieerd aan vele andere organisaties: CAMPUS FRANCE, nationaal Frans agentschap voor de promotie van hoger onderwijs in Frankrijk, SOUFFLE, een professionele organisatie voor opleidingscentra voor Frans als een vreemde taal ...
ACCORD wordt erkend als Bildungsurlaub in een aantal Länder in Duitsland en CSN in Zweden.
Heeft u vragen? Krijg antwoord van onze student adviseurs en medewerkers en oud-studenten van ACCORD Paris.Stel een vraag
Unfortunately it is not possible to book the 50+ program for 3 months,
it is only for one week.
There is no average age of students.. It depends of each week.
Regarding the course French and Law, the student can only book it for 1
week. If he would like to register for 3 months, he has to book the one-to-one
Unfortunately, the families do not have a private bathroom but they can notice it in their booking and we will do our best to find one who has a private bathroom but it is not sure.
A test is foreseen on the first day of the arrival of the student, the will allow the school to know her level.
It is not possible to take a FG+ course if the student is a total beginner. If the student has never studied French before, he can only take the FG course, or eventually a FGCP course.
Moreover, it is not possible to choose the Breakfast only accommodation option for more than 3 weeks. For 10 weeks, it is possible to choose Half-board or Kitchen access, or private studio.
I confirm you that beginners can only start on the first Monday of each month
Unfortunately the Club 50+ program only lasts 2 weeks, it's not possible to extend it
Yes that's correct from 2015 the 50+ course will become 40+ course. We only have 4 starting dates: the first Monday of March, April, June & September. However, the client needs to know that the classes in the morning will be mixed with younger students, it's only the afternoon activities that are exclusively reserved for people over 40 Sometimes it can happen that the student will be all alone and will make the afternoon activities with the person who will keep him/her company
Please note that we do not have the possibility of finding a placement
for an internship in a law company.
We think that the Business French course will suit to him. We will do our best to place him with others students who want to study the same filed than him.
Regarding the homestay, her mother can stay with her if she books the courses.